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How to invade England – 1066 and all that

William II Duke of Normandy didn’t read self-help books.  He never spent an afternoon taking personality tests to find out if he was an ‘ENFP’ (enthusiastic, creative) or ENTA (commander…) nor did he worry over much about his personal brand.

Because William knew exactly who he was, knew exactly what he wanted and he had a pretty good idea how he was going to get it (definitely an ENTA-A).

Match! Colonne de Guillaume le Conquerant - no longer on the cliffs by Dives-sur-Mer but on Houlgate beach!
Match! Colonne de Guillaume le Conquerant – no longer on the cliffs by Dives-sur-Mer but on Houlgate beach!

A new king for England

When Edward King of England died on 5 January 1066 Harold Godwinson took the throne.  News of his elevation quickly reached Normandy where William, who had been one of many promised the throne by the old king, is reported to have been so furious he sulked in his room for hours.

Harold Godwinson annoys William II Duke of Normandy a lot.
Mine Miney Mine Mine! Harold Godwinson takes the English crown.

A delegation was soon sent to England to register his disquiet and his own claim.  They were ignored.

So William II Duke of Normandy started making some complex plans. Plans that included a marvel of medieval marketing and PR, although William knew it as ‘getting his own way’.

William II Duke of Normandy, definately an NTA, painting circa 1620
William II Duke of Normandy (definitely an ENTA-A) painted circa 1620 so possibly not entirely accurate.

Norman networking

He quietly secured permission from Count Baldwin, Regent of France for French knights to enlist in his service.  He negotiated neutrality with all those on Normandy’s borders and his representatives scoured Flanders, France, Brittany, Poitou, Aquitaine, and Burgundy for recruits to join the Norman army.

Put a Pope in your pocket

A delegation led by the Bishop of Lisieux travelled to Italy to convince Pope Alexander II of Williams’s rightful place as King England. Their arguments were fashioned by William’s ecclesiastical advisor Lanfranc ‘a man skilled in human and divine law’ who used Canon law to show Harold was a perjurer and tyrant who should be excommunicated.

Promises were made and William received a Papal Bull that condemned Harold Godwinson and supported his own claims.

Celestial signs

Around Easter on 24 April 1066, Haley’s Comet appeared in the night sky.

The comet was clearly visible for 7 nights. In England Harold was not perturbed; the Witan (king’s council made up of earls, archbishops, thanes and other dignitaries) supported his regency, thousands of troops and hundreds of ships were ready to defend his island.

He was unaware that Norman vessels were effectively patrolling the seas around English ports to ensure the minimum of news about Williams shenanigans got through.

"I'm sure it's nothing to worry about Harold, erm probably a good sign..."
“I’m sure it’s nothing to worry about Harold, erm probably a good sign…”

Gentlemen, I have a plan

In Normandy, William summoned his leading nobles to Lillebonne to announce his wish to fight for his rightful place as King of England. He would make it clear those who supported him would be well rewarded.

William needed every persuasive tactic learnt in his 38 years as, although within Normandy the nobles had  pledged fielty, he could not force them to do anything outside of his lands.  They would also be a much more effective fighting force if they believed in his cause…

First he met with eight of his richest and greatest supporters and set out his case against Harold and his belief in his own rightful place as king of England. They agreed to follow him. They also advised he consult all of his vassals.

Keep it in the family - Duke William with half brothers Odo and Robert
Keep it in the family – Duke William with half brothers Odo and Robert.

The vassals were practical and less easy to convince. They complained that Harold’s fleet and army were too big to take on.  William responded angrily saying his own army would grow and that ‘wars are won not by numbers but by courage’.  He emphasises Harold’s grasp on the throne was unlawful ‘we shall fight to gain what we received as a gift’.

William finally won them over with a little help from a Norman Machiavelli called William fitz Osbern.

Medieval man management

William encouraged the unhappy vassals to discuss their concerns in a room away from him, with William fitz Osbern.  Here they felt able to make their complaints and fears loudly known; enemy numbers were vast, the Norman fleet could never compete with that of the English on water etc etc. They talked until exhausted then went back to William with fitz Osbern as their spokesperson.

Fiendish fitz Osbern!

To their alarm, in front of William, his nobles and advisors,  fitz Osbern launched into a speech that not only spoke of their loyalty and love for the Duke but promised in their name to supply ships and men.  William’s closest allies quickly shouted their support; half brother Bishop Odo promised 100 ships, another half brother Count of Mortain, 120. The great houses of Montgomery and of Eu offered 60 and so it went on.  The more hesitant nobles could not appear disloyal.  William had his fleet and the strong bones of a fine army.

The Ships List

There is, tucked away in an ancient English college, a rare and precious medieval manuscript known as ‘The Ships List of William the Conqueror’.  This parchment, dated between 1130-60, is a copy of an older manuscript from the monastery at Fécamp that recorded, just as the name suggests, the number of ships William’s eminent vassals promised to supply for the invasion.

This is a tiny bit of it, details on how to see more at the end.

Section of the Ship's List of William the Conquero
Section of the Ship’s List of William the Conquero

Here are the key bits:

­­Vassal Ships Knights Ports under their control (probably where they had the ships built)
Robert count of Mortain 120 Sea, Honfleur
Odo Bishop of Bayeux 100 Sea, Port en Bessin
William count of Evreux 80 Itton, Evreux
William fitz Osbern 60 Eure, Pacy and Ivry
Roger of Montgommery 60 Dives, extensive property in the Orne
Roger of Beaumont 60 Risle, Beamont le Roger, Pont Audemer
Robert count of Eu 60 Sea, Le Treport
Hugh of Avranches 60 Sea, Avranches
Hugh of Montfort 50 60
Gerold the Steward 40 Epte, Neufmarche, Honfleur, Gonville
Fulk d’Aunou 40 Risle, Foulbec
Walter Giffard 30 100 Scie, Longueville
Nicholas Abbot of St Ouen 15 100 Seine, Rouen
Femigius of Fecamp 1 20 Sea, St Valery-en-Caux
Not forgetting
Matilda 1 Bethune
776 280

Of course many ports were controlled by William (Dieppe, Etretat, Bruneval, Dives/Carbourg, Caen/Quistreham, Barfleur, Cherbourg and Portbail.  River Seine; Vernon, Le Goulet, Les Damps, Elbeuf, Rouen) and records suggest that before storms and conflict ships numbered up to 1000.

Dragon ships and basic boats

We know from the Bayeux Tapestry that some of the promised ships were ornate Norse style ‘Dragon Ships’  but many would have been extremely basic, designed to carry an army of 7000 men, up to 4 horses for each Knight, endless chainmail , acres of shields, tons of weaponry.  With them would be a second army of cooks, blacksmiths, farriers, priests and provisions.

The fleet would also carry timber cut and ready to build into a complete fortress.

Preparations for invasion
Preparations for invasion

Beautiful Mora

William’s own vessel, the flagship ‘Mora’ was the fastest ship in the fleet. Built in Barfleur and a gift from his queen Matilda of Flanders.  Medieval historian Oderic described it as having ‘for its figurehead the image of a child, gilt, pointing with its right hand towards England, and having in its mouth a trumpet of ivory’.  Bright coloured sails were topped with the Papal banner.  A lantern in her mast and a horn would help the fleet follow her across the sea to England. Her pilot was Stephen, son of Airard.  He would stay with the Mora for the rest of William’s life.

By 12 August 1066 the fleet was ready.

Mora is on the right with a cross flag - the Papal banner
Mora is on the right with a cross flag – the Papal banner

­­

Impatient to invade!

William held regular meetings with his most powerful supporters to discuss plans and maintain their loyalty.

Beyond the Ship’s List there are few details about preparations during this time.  We assume William oversaw the procurement of provisions from the vast fields around Caen and the orchards of the Pays’d’Auge.  But as William of Poitiers, contemporary biographer of Duke William says ‘it would take too long to set out in detail how the duke carefully organised the building of ships and their fitting with arms and men, provisions and all other necessities, and how the enthusiasm of all Normandy was kindled’. All thoughts were on the task ahead.

The Norman Knight
The Norman Knight

Back in Blighty

Harold, not completely unaware and never foolish, had now strengthened his fleet in the channel and kept a significant fighting force ready on the south coast.  Minor sea battles were constant that summer but somehow the new fleet gathering at Dives remained secret from Harold.

Historians cannot agree on what happened next.  The usual story is that the weather stopped the crossing for some weeks.  But some suggest William, well aware of the waiting forces, simply waited. Waited until the first weeks of autumn when no sensible fleet would sail. Indeed by September the coast was clearing as England’s fleet began to head home for the winter.

Lowering of morale

When William’s forces did set sail a sudden and terrible storm forced them up the coast to St Valery, not to England.  Ships were lost and the dead concealed to be buried at night rather than unsettle the army.  The army set up camp and William increased rations to hide a worrying shortage of supplies as more days passed.

But the storms and rain continued and his army were losing faith.  Delays, constant cold and the rain began to be seen as God’s work, a way to tell them William’s claims were false.  The weather didn’t improve until 27 September.

Wily William watches a weathercock

Warned in advance of a likely change in the weather by local fishermen, William kept a watchful eye on the St Valery church weathercock and planned an audacious piece of PR.  As the weathercock began to twitch he ordered the bones of St Valery be taken from the church and walked through the streets so the army could pray for benevolent winds to take them to England.

As his soldiers prayed the rain suddenly stopped.  The wind changed direction and as the sky brightening thousands of superstitious soldiers rushed for their boats.  God was on their side.  William’s fleet caught the evening tide.

The rest is history.

Landing in England. That's William falling over. Ever one for positive spin and realising this could be taken as a bad omen he grasped 2 handfuls of sand and said ‘Look I have already grasped my Kingdom’. Queue medieval eye rolling.
Landing in England. That’s William falling over. Ever one for positive spin and realising this could be taken as a bad omen he grasped 2 handfuls of sand and said ‘Look I have already grasped my Kingdom’. Queue medieval eye rolling.

To have a look at The Ships List of William the Conqueror see ‘A social history of England 900-1200’ Julia Crick, Elisabeth van Houts, Cambridge Press. Or talk to the Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford.

More on William the Conqueror:

2 thoughts on “How to invade England – 1066 and all that

  1. I m a descendant of “a man of malet” (Robert or his dad William), Norfolk, England—We are told Roger DeShimpling had a manor house in Suffolk and his son moved across the county line to Norfolk and started a new town (both exist today) of Shimpling—my ancestor came from Essex county, ater being born in Norfolk Co. in 1735 to Maryland in 1749—would like to know more about ROGER !!!~! will correspond—–FRANK SHRIMPLIN

  2. My French husband and I live at the Chateau de Fauguernon where mystery surrounds us. If only stones could speak! I have a collection of a few postcards, photos probably taken in the 1920s, that give an idea of the recent past. I would like to know how the photographs are numbered. I have number 322 titled FAUGUERNON (Calvados) Ruines de Chateau and also a copy of 323 of the farm connected to the chateau. I have a copy of a card or perhaps a page from ‘Constructions Rurale’ which I found online but was unable to purchase. It has no number. I have recently found three wonderful pages from Constructions Rurale which shows the farm in the 1920s. Were the same photographers taking pictures for books and for postcards? Thanks for your response. Maybe you’d like to see them?
    Sincerely,
    Kathleen Gurrey

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